Gender Bias Learning Project

A zany brainy look at a serious subject

A project of the Center for WorkLife Law UC Hastings College of the Law

Bibliography on Cognitive Bias and Gender Stereotypes

Dominic Abrams, Differential Association: Social Developments in Gender Identity and Intergroup Relations during Adolescence, in The Soc. Identity of Women 59-83 (1989) (Skevins and Baker, eds., Sage).

Joan Acker, Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations,4(2) Gender & Soc. 139-58 (1990).

Michiko Aizawa, An International Perspective: A Proposal to Combine disparate Approaches to the Maternal Wall, 7 Employee Rights and Employment Policy J. 495-531 (2003).

Catherine R. Albiston, Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights, 39(1) L. & Society Rev. 11-49 (2005).

Michele G. Alexander et al., Images and Affect: A Functional Analysis of Out-Group Stereotypes, 77(1) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 78-93 (1999).

Tammy D. Allen et al, The Effects of Gender and Leave of Absence on Attributions for High Performance, Perceived Organizational Commitment, and Allocation of Organizational Rewards, 31(7/8) Sex Roles 443-65 (1994).

David M. Amodio & Patricia G. Devine (2005). Changing Prejudice: The Effects of Persuasion on Implicit and Explicit Forms of Race Bias, in Persuasion: Psychological Insights and Perspectives 249-80 (Brock & Green eds., Sage) (e-copy).

Icek Azjen and Martin Fishbein, The Influence of Attitudes on Behavior, in The Handbook of Attitudes 173-221 (2005).?

Samuel B. Bacharach et al., Diversity and Homophily at Work: Supportive Relationships Among White and African-American Peers, 48(4) Academy of Management J. 619-644 (2005) (e-copy).?

Samuel R. Bagenstos, Implicit Bias, "Science", and Antidiscrimination Law,Wash. Univ. School of Law Working Paper, Paper No. 07-04-01, 1-27 (2006), available at (e-copy)

Richard A. Bales, Normative Consideration of Employment Arbitration at Gilmer's Quinceanera, 81Tul. L. Rev. 331-394 (2006) (e-copy).? ?

Mahzarin R. Banaji et al., How (Un)ethical Are You?, Harvard Business Rev. 56-64 (Dec. 2003).

Mahzarin R. Banaji, Implicit Attitudes Can Be Measured, in The Nature of Remembering: Essays in Honor of Robert G. Crowder 117-150 (2001) (Roediger, et al., eds., APA).

Mahzarin R. Banaji, Ordinary Prejudice, 14(1) Psychol. Sci. Agenda 8-10 (2001).

Mahzarin R. Banaji and Curtis D. Hardin, Automatic Stereotyping, 7(3) Psychol. Sci. 136-41 (May 1996).

Mahzarin R. Banaji et al., Implicit Stereotyping in Person Judgment, 65(2) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 272-81 (Apr. 1993).

Rosalind Chait Barnett and Karen C. Gareis, Does Community Resource Fit Matter to Fathers?: A Study of Employed Fathers, School and School Activity Schedules, and Well-Being, 30 J. Family Issues 1001-16 (2008) (e-copy).

R. Richard Banks et al., Discrimination and Implicit Bias in a Racially Unequal Society, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1169-90 (2006) (e-copy).

Barbano v. Madison County, 922 F.2d 139 (2nd Cir. 1990).

John A. Bargh et al., The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals, 81(6) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1014-1027 (2001) (e-copy).

John A. Bargh et al., Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct Effects of Trait Construct and Stereotype Activation on Action, 71(2) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 230-44 (1996) (e-copy).

John A. Bargh and Tanya L. Chartrand, The Unbearable Automaticity of Being, 54(7) American Psychologist 462-79 (1999).?

James N. Baron and Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Social Psychology of Organizations and Inequality, 57(3) Soc. Psychol. Quarterly 190-209 (1994).

Cheryl Beauvais and Janet T. Spence, Gender, Prejudice, and Categorization, 16(1/2) Sex Roles 89-100 (1987).

Sandra Lipsitz Ben, Gender Schema Theory and Its Implications for Child Development: Raising Gender-Aschematic Children in a Gender-Schematic Society, 8(4) Signs 598-616 (1983).

Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination, 3 Poverty Action Lab Paper 1-39 (2003) (e-copy).

William T. Bielby, Expert Report, Unpublished Manuscript (2000) (awarding contracts in Contra Costa County, CA).

William T. Bielby, Minimizing Workplace Gender and Racial Bias, 29(1) Contemporary Soc. 120-29 (2000).

William T. Bielby, Expert Report, Unpublished Manuscript (1997) (reviewing personnel policy at Home Depot).

Monica Biernat et al., All That You Can Be: Stereotyping of Self and Others in a Military Context, 75(2) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 301-17 (1998).

Monica Biernat et al., Stereotypes and Standards of Judgment, 60(4) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 485-99 (1991).

Monica Biernat and Diane Kobrynowicz, Gender and Race-Based Standards of Competence: Lower Minimum Standards but Higher Ability Standards for Devalued Groups, 72(3) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 544-57 (1997).

Monica Biernat, Toward a Better View of Social Stereotyping, 58(12) American Psychologist 1019-27 (2003) (e-copy).

Mary Blair-Loy and Amy S. Wharton, Mothers in Finance: Surviving and Thriving, 596 Annals of the American Academy of Political & Soc. Science 151-71 (2004).?

Irene V. Blair, The Malleability of Automatic Stereotypes and Prejudice, 6(3) Personality & Psychol. Rev. 242-61 (2002).

Irene V. Blair et al., Imagining Stereotypes Away: The Moderation of Implicit Stereotypes Through Mental Imagery, 81(5) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 828-41 (2001) (e-copy).

Gary Blasi, Advocacy Against the Stereotype: Lessons From Cognitive Social Psychology, 49 UCLA L. Rev. 1241-96 (2002).?

Gary Blasi, Default Discrimination: Law, Science, and Unintended Discrimination in the New Workplace, Unpublished Manuscript 1-35 (2004).?

Alison L. Booth and Jan C. Van Ours, Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-time Work Puzzle, 20 Unpublished Manuscript 1-38 (2007) (e-copy).

Eugene Borgida and Anita Kim, Reflections on Being an Expert Witness in Class Action Sex Discrimination Litigation, in Sex Discrimination in the Workplace Ch. 9 (2006) (Crosby et al., eds., Oxford: Blackwell).

Eugene Borgida and Susan T. Fiske, By Way of Introduction, 51(1) J. of Soc. Issues 1-10 (1995).

Bruce Bower, The Bias Finders: A test of unconscious attitudes polarizes psychologists, 169(16) Science News Online (Apr. 22, 2004), available at

Todd S. Braver and Jonathon D. Cohen, On the Control of Control: The Role of Dopamine in Regulating Prefrontal Function and Working Memory, in Control of Cognitive Processes: Attention and Performance XVIII 713-37 (2000) (Stephen Monsell et. al. eds., MIT Press) (e-copy).

Marilynn B. Brewer and Rupert J. Brown, Intergroup Relations, in Handbook of Soc. Psychol. 554-94 (1998) (Delamater, ed., Springer US).

Marilynn B. Brewer, The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations: Can Research Inform Practice?, 53(1) J. of Soc. Issues 197-211 (1997).

Marilynn B. Brewer, The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love or Outgroup Hate?, 55(3) J. Soc. Issues ? 429-44 (1999).

Marilynn B. Brewer, In Group Favoritism: The Subtle Side of Intergroup Discrimination, in Codes of Conduct Behavioral Research into Business Ethics 58-68 (1996) (Messick and Tenbrunsel, eds., Russell Sage).

Diane Bridge, The Glass Ceiling and Sexual Stereotyping: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Women in the Workplace, 4 Va. J. Soc. Policy & L. 581-643 (Spring 1997).

Judith S. Bridges, College Females' Perceptions of Adult Roles and Occupational Fields for Women, 16(11-12) Sex Roles 591-604 (1987).

Judith S. Bridges and Claire Etaugh, College Students' Perceptions of Mothers: Effects of Maternal Employment-Childrearing Pattern and Motive for Employment, 32(11/12) Sex Roles 735-51 (1995).

Judith S. Bridges and Ann Marie Orza, Effects of Maternal Employment-Childrearing Pattern on College Students' Perceptions of a Mother and her Child, 17 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 103-17 (1993).

Inge K. Broverman et al., Sex-Role Stereotypes and Clinical Judgments of Mental Health, 34(1) J. of Consulting & Clinical Psychol. 1-7 (1970).

Jerome S. Bruner, On Perceptual Readiness, 64(2) Psychol. Rev. 123-152 (1957).

Diana Burgess and Eugene Borgida, Who Women Are, Who Women Should Be: Descriptive and Prescriptive Gender Stereotyping in Sex Discrimination, 5 Psychol. Pub. Pol'y & L. 665-92 (1999).

Butler v. Home Depot Inc., 984 F. Supp. 1257 (N.D. Cal. 1997) (motion to exclude Dr. Bielby's testimony denied).

Adam B. Butler and Amie Skattebo, What is Acceptable for Women May not be for Men: The Effect of Family Conflicts with Work on Job Performance Ratings, 77 J. of Occupational & Organizational Psychol. 553-64 (2004).

Devon Carbado et al., After Inclusion, 4 Annual Rev. L. and Soc. Science 83-102 (2008).

Devon W. Carbado and Mitu Gulati, Conversations at Work, 79(1) Or. L. Rev. 103-45 (Spring 2000).

Devon W. Carbado and Mitu Gulati, Interactions at Work: Remembering David Charny, 17 Harv. Blackletter L.J. 13-22 (Spring 2001).

Devon W. Carbado, Motherhood and Work in Cultural Context: One Woman's Patriarchal Bargain, 21(1) Harv. Women's L.J. 115-28 ? (1998).

Devon W. Carbado and Mitu Gulati, The Fifth Black Woman, 12(1)J. of Contemp. Legal Issues701-29 (2001).

Linda L. Carli, Gender and Social Influence, 57(4) J. Soc. Issues 725-41 (2001) (e-copy).

Sandra Carpenter and Susan Trentham, Subtypes of Women and Men: A New Taxonomy and an Exploratory Categorical Analysis, 13(4) J. Soc. Behavior & Personality 679-96 (1998).

Catalyst, Women "Take Care," Men "Take Charge:" Stereotyping of U.S. Business Leaders Exposed, 1-40 (2005).

Loren J. Chapman and Jean P. Chapman, Illusory Correlation as an Obstacle to the Use of Valid Psychodiagnostic Signs, 74(3) J. of Abnormal Psychol. 271-80 (1969).

Loren J. Chapman and Jean P. Chapman, Genesis of Popular but Erroneous Psychodiagnostic Observations, 72(3) J. of Abnormal Psychol. 193-204 (1967).

Jennifer A. Chatman et al., Being Different yet Feeling Similar: The Influence of Demographic Composition and Organizational Culture on work Processes and Outcomes, 43(4) Administrative Science Quarterly 749-80 (1998) (e-copy).

Patricia W. Cheng and Richard E. Nisbett, Pragmatic Constraints on Causal Deduction, in Rules for Reasoning 207-27 (1993) (R.E. Nisbett, ed., Erlbaum).

Incheol Choi et al., Causal Attribution Across Cultures: Variation and Universality, 125(1) Psychol. Bulletin 47-63 (1999).

Dolly Chugh, Societal and Managerial Implications of Implicit Social Cognition: Why Milliseconds Matter, 17(2) Soc. Justice Research 203-22 (2004).

A. Kay Clifton et al., Stereotypes of Women, A Single Category?, 2(2) Sex Roles 135-46 (1976).

John Condry and Sandra Condry, Sex Differences: A Study of the Eye of the Beholder, 47 Child Development 812-19 (1976).

Shelley J. Correll and Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Expectation States Theory, in Handbook of Social Psychology 29-51 (2003) (Delamater ed., Kluwer Academic/Plenum) (e-copy).

Shelley J. Correll et al., Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? 112(5) Amer. J. of Sociology 1297-1338 (2007) (e-copy).

Sara J. Corse, Pregnant Managers and their Subordinates: The Effects of Gender Expectations on Hierarchical Relationships, 26(1) J. of Applied Behavioral Sci. 25-47 (1990).?

Faye J. Crosby, The Maternal Wall, 60(4) J. Soc. Issues 675-82 (2004) (Monica Biernat et al., eds.).

Amy J.C. Cuddy and Cindy M. Frantz, Race and the Maternal Wall, (Working Paper)

Amy J. C. Cuddy and Susan T. Fiske, When Professional Become Mothers, Warmth Doesn't Cut the Ice, 60(4) J. Soc. Issues 701-18 (2004).

William A. Cunningham et al., Implicit Attitude Measures: Consistency, Stability, and Convergent Validity, 12(2) Psychol. Science 163-70 (2001).

John M. Darley and Paget H. Gross, A Hypothesis-Confirming Bias in Labeling Effects, 44(1) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 20-33 (1983).

John M. Darley and Russell H. Fazio, Expectancy Confirmation Process Arising in the Social Interaction Sequence, 35(10) American Psychologist 867-81 (Oct. 1980).

Nilanjana Dasgupta et al., Automatic Preference for White Americans: Eliminating the Familiarity Explanation, 36 J. of Experimental Soc. Psychol. 316-28 (2000).

Nilanjana Dasgupta, Implicit Ingroup Favoritism, Outgroup Favoritism, and Their Behavioral Manifestations, 17(2) Social Justice Research 143-68 (2004) (e-copy).?

Francine M. Deutsche and Susan E. Saxon, The Double Standard of Praise and Criticism for Mothers and Fathers, 22 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 665-83 (1998).

Kay Deaux and Brenda Major, Putting Gender Into Context: An Interactive Model of Gender-Related Behavior, 94(3) Psychol. Rev. 369-89 (1987).

Kay Deaux, How Basic Can You Be?? The Evolution of Research on Gender Stereotypes, 51(1) J. of Soc. Issues 11-20 (1995).

Kay Deaux and Tim Emswiller, Explanations of Successful Performance on Sex-Linked Tasks: What is Skill for the Male is Luck for the Female, 29(1) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 80-5 (1974).

Kay Deaux et al., Level of Categorization and Content of Gender Stereotype, 3(2) Soc. Cognition 145-67 (1985).

Patricia G. Devine, Implicit Prejudice and Stereotyping: How Automatic Are They?, 81(5) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 757-59 (2001) (e-copy).

Christine E. Dickson, The Impact of Family Supportive Policies and Practices on Perceived Family Discrimination, (PhD Dissertation) 6-8 (2003).?

Frank Dobbin and Erin L. Kelly, How to Stop Harassment: Professional Construction of Legal Compliance in Organizations, 112(4) American J. Sociology 1203-43 (2007).?

Robert Drago, et al., The Avoidance of Bias Against Caregiving: The Case of Academic Faculty, 49(9) American Behavioral Scientist 1222-47 (2006)

John Duckitt, A Dual-Process Cognitive-Motivational Theory of Ideology and Prejudice, 33 Advances in Experimental Soc. Psychol. 41-113 (2001).

Alice H. Eagly and Valerie J. Steffen, Gender Stereotypes, Occupational Roles, and Beliefs About Part-Time Employees, 10 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 252-62 (1986).

Alice H. Eagly and Valerie J. Steffen, Gender Stereotypes Stem From the Distribution of Women and Men Into Social Roles, 46(4) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 735-54 (1984).

Alice H. Eagly and Steven J. Karau, Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice Towards Female Leaders, 109(3) Psychol. Rev. 573-98 (2002).

Alice H. Eagly et al., Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and Similarities: A Current Appraisal, in The Developmental Soc. Psychol. of Gender 123-174 (2000) (Eckes and Trautner, eds., Erlbaum).

Thomas Eckes, Features of Men, Features of Women: Assessing Stereotypic Beliefs About Gender Subtypes, 33 British J. of Soc. Psychol. 107-23 (1994).

Thomas Eckes, A Closer Look at the Complex Structure of Gender Stereotypes, 24(1/2) Sex Roles 57-70 (1991).?

Thomas Eckes, Paternalistic and Envious Gender Stereotypes: Testing Predictions From the Stereotype Content Model, 47(3/4) Sex Roles 99-114 (2002).

Thomas Eckes, Explorations in Gender Cognition: Content and Structure of Female and Male Stereotypes, 12(1) Soc. Cognition 37-60 (1994).

Thomas Eckes, Linking Female and Male Subtypes to Situations: A Range-of-Situations-Fit Effect, 35(7/8) Sex Roles 401-26 (1996).

Lauren B. Edelman et al., Internal Dispute Resolution: The Transformation of Civil Rights in the Workplace, 27 L. & Society Rev. 497-534 (1993).

Lauren Edelman, Legal Ambiguity and Symbolic Structures: Organizational Mediation of Civil Rights Law, 97(6) The American J. Sociology 1531-76 (1992).

EEOC, Unlawful Disparate Treatment of Workers with Caregiving Responsibilities, (2007) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), available at

Janet E. Gans Epner, Visible Invisibility: Women of Color in Law Firms, ABA Commission on Women in the Profession xi-xii, 24-33 (2006) available at (e-copy).

Sarah Beth Estes and Jennifer L. Glass, Job Changes After Childbirth: Are Women Trading Compensation for Family Responsive Work Conditions?, 23(4) Work and Occupations 405-36 (1996).

Claire Etaugh and Cara Moss, Attitudes of Employed Women Toward Parents Who Choose Full-Time or Part-Time Employment Following Their Child's Birth, 44(9/10) Sex Roles 611-19 (2001).

Claire Etaugh and Karen Nekolny, Effects of Employment status and Marital Status on Perceptions of Mothers, 23(5/6) Sex Roles 273-80 (1990).?

Claire Etaugh and Karen Nekolny, Effects of Employment Status and Marital Status on Perceptions of Mothers, 23(5/6) Sex Roles 273-280 (1990).

Claire Etaugh and Patricia Poertner, Effects of Occupational Prestige, Employment Status, and Marital Status on Perceptions of Mothers, 24(5/6) Sex Roles 345-53 (1991).

Claire Etaugh and Sue Riley, Evaluating Competence of Women and Men: Effects of Marital and Parental Status and Occupational Stereotyping, 9(9) Sex Roles 943-51 (1983).

Claire Etaugh and Gina Gilomen Study, Perceptions of Mothers: Effects of Employment Status, Marital Status, and Age of Child, 20(1/2) Sex Roles 59-70 (1989).

Claire Etaugh and Denise Folger, Perceptions of Parents Whose Work and Parenting Behaviors Deviate from Role Expectations, 39(3/4) Sex Roles 215-23 (1998).

Claire Etaugh and Patricia Poertner, Perceptions of Women: Influence of Performance, Marital and Parental Variables, 26(7/8) Sex Roles 311-21 (1992).

Claire Etaugh and Joanne Stern, Person Perception: Effects of Sex, Marital Status, and Sex-Typed Occupation, 11(5/6) Sex Roles 413-24 (1992).

Claire Etaugh and Helen Czachorski Kasley, Evaluating Competence: Effects of Sex. Marital Status, and Parental Status, 6(2) Psychol. of Women's Quarterly 196-203 (1981).

Christine Haight Farley, Confronting Expectations: Women in the Legal Academy, 8 Yale J.L. & Feminism? 333-60 (1996).

Russel H. Fazio and Bridget C. Dunton, Categorization by Race: The Impact of Automatic and Controlled Components of Racial Prejudice, 33 J. of Experimental Soc. Psychol. 451-70 (1997).

Russel H. Fazio and Laura E. Hilden, Emotional Reactions to a Seemingly Prejudiced Response: The Roles of Automatically Activated Racial Attitudes and Motivations to Controlled Prejudiced Reactions, 27(5) Personality and Soc. Psychol. Bulletin 538-549 (2001).

Russel H. Fazio et al., Variability in Automatic Activation as an Unobtrusive Measure of Racial Attitudes: A Bona Fide Pipeline?, 69(6) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1013-27 (1995).

Michael Firth, Sex Discrimination in Job Opportunities for Women, 8(8) Sex Roles 891-901 (1982) (e-copy).

Susan T. Fiske et al., A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow From Perceived Status and Competition, 82(6) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 878-902 (2002) (e-copy).

Susan T. Fiske et al., (Dis)respecting versus (Dis)liking: Status and Interdependence Predict Ambivalent Stereotypes of Competence and Warmth, 55(3) J. Soc. Issues 473-89 (1999).

Susan T. Fiske and Linda Hamilton Krieger, Policy Implications of Unexamined Discrimination: Gender Bias in Employment as a Case Study, in Behavorial Foundations of Policy (Forthcoming 2009) (Eldar Shafir ed. Princeton University Press).? ?

Susan T. Fiske, Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination, in 2 The Handbook of Soc. Psychol. 357-411 (1998) (Daniel T. Gilbert et al. eds., Oxford University Press).

Raymond Fisman et al., Gender Differences in Mate Selection: Evidence from a Speed Dating Experiment, 121(2) quarterly J. Economics 673-97 (2006) (e-copy).

Martha Foschi, Double Standards for Competence: Theory and Research, 26(2000) Annual Rev. of Soc. 21-42 (2000).

Kathleen Fuegen et al., Mothers and Fathers in the Workplace: How Gender and Parental Status Influence Judgments of Job-Related Competence, 60(4) J. of Soc. Issues 737-54 (2004).

Lindy Fursman and Paul Callister, Men's Participation in Unpaid Care: A Review of the Literature, New Zealand Department of Labour ,Ministry of Women's Affairs Publication 1-110 (2009) (e-copy).

Lawrence H. Ganong and Marilyn Coleman, The Content of Mother Stereotypes, 32(7/8) Sex Roles 495-512 (1995).

Lawrence H. Ganong et al., A Meta-analytic Review of Family Structure Stereotypes, 52 J. of Marriage and Family 287-97 (1990).

General Accounting Office (GAO), Women's Earnings: Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference Between Men's and Women's Earnings, Report to Congressional Requesters 1-75 (Oct. 2003) (e-copy).

Daniel T. Gilbert and J. Gregory Hixon, The Trouble of Thinking: Activation and Application of Stereotypic Beliefs, 60(4) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 509-17 (1991) (e-copy).

Daniel T. Gilbert et al., Immune Neglect: A Source of Durability Bias in Affective Forecasting, 75(3) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 617-38 (1998) (e-copy).

Rebecca Glauber, Marriage and the Motherhood Wage Penalty among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites, 69 J. Marriage and family 951-61 (2007).

Peter Glick et al., The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Sexism, 70(3) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 491-512 (1996).

Peter Glick et al., Ambivalent Sexism, 33 Advances in Experimental Soc. Psychol. 115-88 (2001) (Mark P. Zanna ed.).

Peter Glick et al., Ambivalent Stereotypes as Legitimizing Ideologies: Differentiating Paternalistic and Envious Prejudice, in The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice, and Intergroup Relations 278-306 (2001) (John T. Jost et al. eds., Cambridge).

Peter Glick et al., An Ambivalent Alliance: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism as Complementary Justifications for Gender Inequality, 56(2) American Psychologist 109-18 (Feb. 2001).

Peter Glick et al., The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory: Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Beliefs About Men, 23 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 519-36 (1999).

Peter Glick et al., Beyond Prejudice as Simple Antipathy: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism across Cultures, 79(5) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 763-75 (2000).

Peter Glick et al., Hostile and Benevolent Sexism: Measuring Ambivalent Sexist Attitudes toward Women, 21 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 119-35 (1997) (Cambridge University Press).

Peter Glick et al., Sexism and Other "Isms": Interdependence, Status, and the Ambivalent Content of Stereotypes, in Sexism and Stereotypes in Modern Society: The Gender Science of Janet Taylor Spence 193-221 (1999) (William B. Swan, Jr. et al. eds., American Psychological Association Press).

Peter Glick et al., The Two Faces of Adam: Ambivalent Sexism and Polarized Attitudes Toward Women, 23(12) Personality and Soc. Psychol. Bulletin 1323-34 (1997).

Peter Glick et al., What Mediates Sex Discrimination in Hiring Decision?, 55(2) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 178-86 (1988).

Peter Glick, Trait-Based and Sex-Based Discrimination in Occupational Prestige, Occupational Salary, and Hiring, 25(5/6) Sex Roles 351-78 (1991).

Peter Glick et al., Images of Occupations: Components of Gender and Status in Occupational Stereotypes, 32(9/10) Sex Roles 565-82 (1995).

Claudia Goldin and Cecilia Rouse, Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of quot;Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians, 90(4) American Econ. Rev. 715-41 (2000) (e-copy).

Good for Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital, U.S. Glass Ceiling Commission (1995) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office), available at

Jennifer Gottschalk, Accommodating Pregnancy on the Job, 45 U. Kan. L. Rev. 241-72 (1996).

Tristin K. Green, Discrimination in Workplace Dynamics: Toward a Structural Account of Disparate Treatment Theory, 38 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 91-157 (2003) (e-copy).

Tristin K. Green, Work Culture and Discrimination, 93(3) Cal.? L. Rev. 623-684 (2005) (e-copy).

Anthony G. Greenwald and Linda Hamilton Krieger, Implicit Bias: Scientific Foundations, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 945-967 (2006).

Anthony G. Greenwald, et al., A Unified Theory of Implicit Attitudes, Stereotypes, Self-Esteem, and Self-Concept, 109(1) Psychol. Rev. 3-25 (2002) (e-copy).

Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test, 74(6) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1464-80 (1998).

Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Predictive Validity of the IAT: Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test III Meta-analysis of Predictive Validity, (Draft) 1-76 (2007) (e-copy).

Jeffrey Adam Gruen, Can Promoting Cultural Diversity Backfire? A Look at the Implicit Effects of Psychological Reactance, M.S. Thesis 1-28 (2005) (e-copy).

Bernard Guerin, Combating Everyday Racial Discrimination Without Assuming Racists or Racism: New Intervention Ideas from a Contextual Analysis, 14 Behavior and Soc. Issues 46-70 (2005) (e-copy).

Mitu Gulati – Joana Benjamin, Assignment for Professor Mitu Gulati, regarding Joan Williams, Litigating the Glass Ceiling and the Maternal Wall, and Defanging the "Cluelessness Defense" (2003).

Mitu Gulati – Rebecca Cady, Assignment for Professor Mitu Gulati, regarding Joan Williams, Litigating the Glass Ceiling and the Maternal Wall, and Defanging the "Cluelessness Defense" (2003).

Mitu Gulati – Kiran Jain, Assignment for Professor Mitu Gulati, regarding Joan Williams, Litigating the Glass Ceiling and the Maternal Wall, and Defanging the "Cluelessness Defense" (2003).

Mitu Gulati – Wendy Klein, Assignment for Professor Mitu Gulati, regarding Joan Williams, Litigating the Glass Ceiling and the Maternal Wall, and Defanging the "Cluelessness Defense" (2003).

Mitu Gulati – Anna Kovina, Assignment for Professor Mitu Gulati, regarding Joan Williams, Litigating the Glass Ceiling and the Maternal Wall, and Defanging the "Cluelessness Defense" (2003).

Mitu Gulati – Joanna Sokolow, Assignment for Professor Mitu Gulati, regarding Joan Williams, Litigating the Glass Ceiling and the Maternal Wall, and Defanging the "Cluelessness Defense" (2003).

Diane F. Halpern, Psychology at the Intersection of Work and Family, 60(5) American Psychologist 397-409 (July-Aug. 2005) (e-copy).

Jane A. Halpert et al., Pregnancy as a Source of Bias in Performance Appraisals, 14 J. Organizational Behavior 649-63 (1993).

Jane A. Halpert and Julia Hickman Burg, Mixed Messages: Co-Workers Responses to the Pregnant Employee, 12(2) J. Bus. and Psychol. 241-53 (1997).

David L. Hamilton et al., Illusory Correlation in Interpersonal Perception: A cognitive Bias of Stereotypic Judgments, 12 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 392-407 (1976).

David L. Hamilton et al., Illusory Correlation and the Maintenance of Stereotypic Beliefs, 39(5) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 833-45 (1980).

Keith Hattrup et al., The Roles of Information Characteristics and Accountability in Moderating Stereotype-Driven Processes during Social Decision Making, 63(1) Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes 73-86 (1995) (e-copy).

Haynie v. St. Mary's County, No. DKC 97-3062, 2001 WL 194297 (D. Md. Feb. 26, 2001).

Madeline E. Heilman et al., No Credit Where Credit Is Due: Attributional Rationalization of Women's Success in Male-Female Teams, 90(5) J. Applied Psychol. 905-16 (2005) (e-copy).

Madeline E. Heilman et al., Sex Stereotypes: Do They Influence Perceptions of Managers?, 10(6) J. Soc. Behavior & Personality (Gender in the Workplace) 237-52 (1995).

Madeline E. Heilman, Description and Prescription: How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women's Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder, 57(4) J. Soc. Issues 657-74 (2001).

Madeline E. Heilman et al., Penalties for Success: Reactions to Women Who Succeed at Male Gender-Typed Tasks, 89(3) J. Applied Psychol. 416-27 (2004).

Madeline E. Heilman et al., Has Anything Changed? Current Characterizations of Men, Women, and Managers, 74(6) J. Applied Psychol. 935-42 (1989).

Madeline E. Heilman, Sex Bias in Work Settings: The Lack of Fit Model, 5 Research in Organizational Behavior 269-98 (1983).

Madeline E. Heilman, Sex Stereotypes and The Effects in the Workplace: What We Know and What We Don't Know, 10(6) J. Soc. Behavior & Personality (Gender in the Workplace) 3-26 (1995).

Madeline E. Heilman et al., The Vagaries of Sex Bias: Conditions Regulating the Undervaluation, Equivaluation, and Overvaluation of Female Job Applicants, 41 Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes 98-110 (1988).

Julia R. Henly et al., Nonstandard Work Schedules: Employer- and Employee-Driven Flexibility in Retail Jobs, Soc. Service Rev. 609-34 (2006) (e-copy).

Julia R. Henly and Susan Lambert, Nonstandard Work and Child-Care Needs of Low-Income Parents, in Work, Family, Health, & Well-Being (S. Bianchi et al. eds., Erlbaum) (2005) (e-copy).

E. Tory Higgins, Category Accessibility and Impression Formation, 13 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 141-54 (1977).

Judith Howard, Social Psychology of Identities, 26 Annual Rev. Sociology 367-93 (2000).

Jennifer S. Hunt et al., Gender Stereotyping, in 2 Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony 625-96 (2007). (David L. Faigman et al. eds. West Publishing Co.).

Lynne M. Jackson et al., Contemporary Sexism and Discrimination: The Importance of Respect for Men and Women, 27(1) Personality & Soc. Psychol. Bulletin 48-61 (Jan. 2001) (e-copy).

Linda A. Jackson and Robert W. Hymes, Gender and Social Categorization: Familiarity and Ingroup Polarization in Recall and Evaluation, 125(1) J. of Soc. Psychol. 81-8 (1985).

April Jones and Jeanette N. Cleveland, The Role of Managerial Support for Single Employees, SIOP Conference Paper 1-33 (2006) (e-copy).

Li-Jun Ji et al., Culture, Control, and Perception of Relationships in the Environment, 78(5) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 943-55 (2000).

Dale O. Jorgenson et al., The Effects of Communication, Resource Feedback, and Identifiability on Behavior in a Simulated Commons, 17 J. of Experimental Soc. Psychol. 373-85 (1981).

Timothy A. Judge and Beth A. Livingston, Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings, 93(5) J. of Applied Psychol. 994-1012 (2008).?

Timothy A. Judge et al., Work-Family Conflict and Emotions: Effects at Work and at Home, 59 Personnel Psychol. 779-814 (2006) (e-copy).

Alexandra Kalev et al., Best Practices or Best Guesses: Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies, 71 American Sociological Rev. 589-617 (2006) (e-copy).

Alexandra Kalev and Frank Dobbin, Enforcement of Civil Rights Law in Private Workplaces: The Effects of Compliance Reviews and lawsuits Over Time, 31(4) L. & Soc. Inquiry 855-903 (2006) (e-copy).

Phillip Kasinitz and Jan Rosenberg, Missing the Connection: Social Isolation and Employment on the Brooklyn Waterfront, 43(2) Soc. Probs. 180-200 (1996).

Denise B. Kandel et al., The Stressfulness of Daily Social Roles for Women: Marital, Occupational, and Household Roles, 26(1) J. of Health & Soc. Behavior 64-78 (1985).

Jerry Kang and Mahzarin R. Banaji, Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of "Affirmative Action", 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1063-1118 (2006)

Ivy Kennelly, "That Single-Mother Element": How White Employers Typify Black Women, 13(2) Gender & Society 168-93 (1999).

Sally J. Kenney, Pregnancy Discrimination: Toward Substantive Equality, 10 Wis. Women's L. J. 351-402 (1995).

Ronald C. Kessler et al., Sex and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey I: Lifetime Prevalence, Chronicity and Recurrence, 29 J. of Affective Disorders 85-96 (1993).

Karl Christoph Klauer, Measurement Error in Subliminal Perception Experiments: Simulation Analyses of Two Regression Methods – Comment on Miller, 26(4) J. of Experimental Psychol. 1506-08 (2000).

Diane Kobrynowicz and Monica Biernat, Decoding Subjective Evaluations: How Stereotypes Provide Shifting Standards, 33 J. of Experimental Soc. Psychol. 579-601 (1997).?

Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox et al., Biases, Premiums, and Penalties: Student Perceptions of Parents and Childless/Childfree Couples, (In review/revision)

Roderick M. Kramer, Intergroup Relations and Organizational Dilemmas: The Role of Categorical Processes, 13 Research in Organizational Behavior 191-228 (1991) (e-copy).

Laura J. Kray et al., Battle of the Sexes: Gender Stereotype Confirmation and Reactance in Negotiations, 80(6) J. of Personality and Soc. Psychol. 942-58 (2001) (e-copy).

Linda Hamilton Kreiger and Susan T. Fiske, Behavioral Realism in Employment Discrimination Law: Implicit Bias and Disparate Treatment, 94 California L. Rev. 997-1062 (2006) (e-copy).

Linda Hamilton Krieger, The Content of Our Categories: A Cognitive Bias Approach to Discrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity, 47(6) Stanford L. Rev. 1161- 1248 (1995) (e-copy).

Linda Hamilton Krieger, The Intuitive Psychologist Behind the Bench: Models of Gender Bias in Social Psychology and Employment Discrimination Law, 60(4) J. Soc. Issues 835-48 (2004) (Monica Biernat et al., eds.).

Arie W. Kruglanski and Donna M. Webster, Motivated Closing of the Mind: "Seizing" and "Freezing", 103(2) Pyschol. Rev. 263-83 (1996) (e-copy).

Marianne Lafrance, The Schemas and Schemes in Sex Discrimination, 65 Brook. L. Rev. 1063-71 (1999).

Susan J. Lambert and Elaine Waxman, Organizational Stratification: Distributing Opportunities for Balancing Work and Personal Life, in Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives 103-126 (2005) (Ellen Ernst Kossek and Susan J. Lambert eds. Erlbaum) (e-copy).

Hope Landrine, Race X Class Stereotypes of Women, 13(1/2) Sex Roles 65-73 (1985).

Frank J. Landy, Stereotypes, Bias and Personnel Decisions: Strange and Stranger, 1(4) Industrial and Organizational Psychol., 379-92 (2008).

Kristin A. Lane et al., Implicit Social Cognition and Law, 3 Annual Rev. L. Soc. Science 427-51 (2007) (e-copy).

Jocelyn D. Larkin, Understanding and Evaluating Stereotyping Evidence: Applying the Social Science and the Law to the Evidence, Nat'l Workshop for District Judges 1-15 (2008).

Audrey J. Lee, Unconscious Bias Theory in Employment Discrimination Litigation, 40 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties L. Rev. 481-503 (2005).?

Kristi Lemm and Mahzarin R. Banaji, Unconscious Attitudes and Beliefs about Women and Men, in Wahrnehmung ung Herstellung von Geschlect (Perceiving and Performing Gender) 215-33 (1999) (Pasero and Braun, eds., Westdutscher Verlag).

Patricia W. Linville and Edward E. Jones, Polarized Appraisals of Out-Group Members, 38(5) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol.? 689-703 (1980).

Patricia W. Linville and Donal E. Carlston, Social Cognition of the Self, in Soc. Cognition: Impact on Soc. Psychol. 143- 93(1994) (Devine and Hamilton, eds., Academic Press).

Anne Maass et al., Sexual Harassment Under Social Identity Threat: The Computer Harassment Paradigm, 85(5) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 853-70 (2003).

Tara K. MacDonald et al., Cross-Dimension Ambivalence Toward Social Groups: Can Ambivalence Affect Intentions to Hire Feminists?, 24(4) Personality and Soc. Psychol. Bulletin 427-41 (1998).

C. Neil Macrae et al., Social Cognition: Thinking Categorically About Others, 51 Annual Rev. of Psychol. 93-120 (2000).

Virginia Smith Major, Pregnancy in the Workplace: Stigmatization and work Identity Management Among Pregnant Employees, PhD Dissertation 1-129 (2004) (e-copy).

Martin H. Malin, Work-Family Conflicts in Grievance Arbitration, Unpublished Manuscript.

Hazel Markus et al., Role of the Self-Concept in the Perception of Others, 49(6) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1494-1512 (1985).

Hazel Markus, Self-Schemata and Processing Information About the Self, 35(2) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 63-78 (1977).

Richard F. Martell et al., Male-Female Differences: A Computer Simulation, 51 American Psychologist 157-58 (1996) (e-copy).

Richard F. Martell, Sex Bias at Work: The Effects of Attentional and Memory Demands on Performance Ratings of Men and Women, 21(23) J. of Applied Psychol. 1939-60 (1991).

Richard F. Martell, What Mediates Gender Bias in Work Behavior Ratings?, 35(3/4) Sex Roles 153-69 (1996).

Patricia Yancey Martin, Practising Gender at Work: Further Thoughts on Reflexivity, 13(3) Gender, Work and Organization 254-76 (2006).?

Barbara Masser et al., The Relationships Among Hostility, Benevolence, and Neosexism, 23 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 503-17 (1999).

Barbara Masser et al., 'We Like You, But We Don't Want You' – The Impact of Pregnancy in the Workplace, 57(9/10) Sex Roles 703-12 (2007).

Douglas M. McCracken, Winning the Talent War for Women: Sometimes It Takes a Revolution, in Harvard Business Rev. 159-167 (Nov./Dec. 2000).

Ann C. McGinley, ¡Viva La Evolution!: Recognizing Unconscious Motive in Title VII, 9 Cornell J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 415 (2000).

Deborah J. Merritt, Bias, the Brain, and Student Evaluations of Teaching, 1939 Bepress Legal Series 1-52 (2007) (e-copy).

Robert K. Merton, The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, 8 Antioch Rev. 193-210 (1948).

Dale T. Miller, Expectancies and Interpersonal Processes, 37 Annual Rev. of Psychol. 233-56 (1986).

Gregory Mitchell and Philip E. Tetlock, Antidiscrimination Law and the Perils of Mindreading, 67 Ohio State L. J. 1023-1121 (2006) (e-copy).

Raymond S. Nickerson, Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises, 2(2) Rev. of General Psychol. 175-220 (1998) (e-copy).

Richard E. Nisbett, Perceiving the Causes of One's Own Behavior, in Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior 63-78 (1987) (Edward E. Jones et al. eds., General Learning Press).

Mary C. Noonan and Mary E. Corcoran, The Mommy Track and Partnership: Temporary Delay or Dead End?, 596 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Soc. Sciences 130-50 (2004).?

Ara Norenzayan et al., Eastern and Western Perceptions of Causality for Social Behavior: Lay Theories About Personalities and Situations, in Cultural Divides: Understanding and Overcoming Group Conflict 241-72 (1999) (Deborah A Prentice et al. eds., Russell Sage Foundation Publications).

Michael I. Norton et al., Casuistry and Social Category Bias, 87(6) J. Personality and Soc. Psychol. 817-31 (2004) (e-copy).

Brian A. Nosek et al., Harvesting Implicit Group Attitudes and Beliefs From a Demonstration Web Site, 6(1) Group Dynamics: Theory, research, & Practice 101-15 (2002).

David Benjamin Oppenheimer, Negligent Discrimination, 141 U. Pa. L. Rev. 899-972 (1993).

Laura Oren, Protection, Patriarchy, and Capitalism: The Politics and Theory of Gender-Specific Regulation in the Workplace, 6 UCLA Women's L. J. 321-73 (1996).

B. Keith Payne, Conceptualizing Control in Social Cognition: How Executive Functioning Modulates the Expression of Automatic Stereotyping, 89(4) J. PEronality and Soc. Psychol. 488-503 (2005) (e-copy).

Bernadette Park et al., Role of Meaningful Subgroups in Explaining Differences in Perceived Variability for In-Groups and Out-Groups, 63(4) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 553-67 (1992).

Gregory S. Parks, Critical Race Realism: Towards an Integrative Model of Critical Race Theory, Empirical Social Science, and Public Policy, 23 Cornell Law School Working Papers 1-71 (2007) (e-copy).

Roger Parloff, The War Over Unconscious Bias, 156(8) Fortune 90-102 (Oct 2007) (e-copy).

Louise E. Pendry et al., Diversity Training: Putting Theory Into Practice, 80 J. Occupational and Organizational Psychol. 27-50 (2007) (e-copy).

Louise E. Pendry et al., What the Disinterested Perceiver Overlooks: Goal-Oriented Social Categorization, 22(3) Personality & Soc. Psychol. Bulletin 249-56 (1996).

Letitia A. Peplau and Adam Fingerhut, The Paradox of the Lesbian Worker, 60(4) J. Soc. Sciences 719-35 (2004).

Marco Perugini, Predictive Models of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes, 44 British J. Soc. Psychol. 29-45 (2005).

Gina Passarella, Female GCs Offer Advice to Female In-House Counsel, Fulton County Daily Report (June 11, 2009), available at (e-copy).

Thomas F. Pettigrew and Linda R. Tropp, A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory, 90(5) J. of Personality and Soc. Psychol. 751-83 (2006) (e-copy).

Richard E. Petty, The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Current Status and Controversies, in Dual Process Theories in Soc. Psychol. (2000) (S. Chaiken et al. eds., Guilford Press) (e-copy).

E. Ashby Plant and Patricia G. Devine, Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice, 75(3) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 811-32 (1998) (e-copy).

T. Andrew Poehlman et al., Running Hand: Predictive Validity of the IAT, Unpublished Manuscript (2005), available at

Marc R. Poirier, Roundtable: Gender Stereotypes at Work, 65 Brooklyn L. Rev. 1073-1124 (1999).

Deborah A. Prentice et al., When Small Effects Are Impressive, 112(1) Psychological Bulletin 160-64 (1992).

Deborah A. Prentice et al., When Small Effects Are Impressive, 112(1) Psychological Bulletin 160-64 (1992).

Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989).

Barbara F. Reskin, Rethinking Employment Discrimination and its Remedies, in The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field 218-44 (2002) (Mauro F. Guillén et al. eds., Sage).

Barbara F. Reskin, Rethinking Remedies in Employment Discrimination, in The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field 286-326 (2002) (Guillen et al., eds., Russell Sage).

Barbara F. Reskin, The Proximate Causes of Employment Discrimination, 29(2) Contemporary Sociology J. of Rev. 319-28 (2000) (e-copy).

Barbara F. Reskin et al., Jobs, Authority, and Earnings Among Managers: The Continuing Significance of Sex, in Gender Inequality at Work 127-49 (1995) (Jerry A. Jacobs, ed.).

Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Gender, Status, and Leadership, 57(4) J. of Soc. Issues 637-55 (2001).

Cecilia L. Ridgeway et al., The Gender System and Interaction, 25 Annual Rev. Sociology 191-216 (1999) (e-copy).

Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Interaction and the Conservation of Gender Inequality: Considering Employment, 62 American Sociological Rev. (Apr. 1997).

Cecilia L. Ridgeway et al., Limiting Inequality through Interaction: The End(s) of Gender, 29(1) Contemporary Sociology 110-20 (Jan. 2000).

Cecilia L. Ridgeway et al., Motherhood as a Status Characteristic, 60 J. Soc. Issues 683-700 (2003) (J. Williams et al. eds.).

Deborah L. Rhode, Frank R. Strong Law Forum Lecture: The Profession and Its Discontents, 61 Ohio St. L. J. 1335-59 (2000).

Deborah L. Rhode, Myths and Meritocracy, 65 Fordham L. Rev. 585-94 (Nov. 1996).

Joan E. Riedle, Exploring the Subcategories of Stereotypes: Not All Mothers Are the Same, 24(11/12) Sex Roles 711-723 (1991).

Rodriguez v. California Highway Patrol, 89 F. Supp.2d 1131 (N.D. Cal. 2000) (Declaration of William T. Bielby).

Dan-Olof Rooth, Implicit Discrimination in Hiring: Real world Evidence, Discussion Paper no. 2764 (Institute for the Study of Labor [IZA]) 1-34 (2007) (e-copy).

Lee Ross et al., Social Explanation and Social Expectation: Effects of Real and Hypothetical Explanations on Subjective Likelihood, 35(11) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 817-29 (1977).

Mary P. Rowe, Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity, 3(2) Employee Responsibilities and Rights J. 153-163 (1990) (e-copy).

Amanda Royal, In Latest Crack in Lockstep Model, Pillsbury Reduces Pay Based on Productivity, The Recorder (June 10, 2009) (e-copy).

Laurie A. Rudman et al., Reactions to Counterstereotypic Behavior: The Role of Backlash in Cultural Stereotype Maintenance, 87(2) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 157-76 (2004).

Laurie A. Rudman, Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women: The Costs and Benefits of Counterstereotypical Impression Management, 74(3) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 629-45 (1998).

Laurie A. Rudman, Feminized Management and Backlash Toward Agentic Women: The Hidden Cost to Women of a Kinder, Gentler Image of Middle Managers, 77(5) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1004-10 (1999).

George Rutherglen, Reconsidering Burdens of Proof: Ideology, Evidence, and Intent in Individual Claims of Employment Discrimination, 1 Va. J. Soc. Pol'y & L. 43-85 (1993).

H. Andrew Sagar et al., Racial and Behavioral Cues in Black and White Children's Perceptions of Ambiguously Aggressive Acts, 39(4) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 590-98 (1980).

Patricia Sellers, Women, Sex & Power: We'll Get Right to the Point, 134(3) Fortune Magazine (Aug. 5, 1996).

Michael Selmi, Response to Professor Wax: Discrimination as Accident: Old Whine, New Bottle, 74 Ind. L. J. 1233-49 (1999).

Michael Selmi, Family Leave and the Gender Wage Gap, 78 N.C.L. Rev. 707-82 (Mar. 2000).

Jeffrey W. Sherman, Development and Mental Representation of Stereotypes, 70(6) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1126-41 (1996).

J. Sidney Shrauger, Selection and Processing of Self-Evaluative Information: Experimental Evidence and Clinical Implications, in Integrations of Clinical and Soc. Psychol. 128-53 (1982) (Gifford Weary et al. eds., Oxford University Press).

Bernd Six and Thomas Eckes, A Closer Look at the Complex Structure of Gender Stereotypes, 24(1/2)
Sex Roles 57-71 (1991).

Mark Snyder et al., Social Perception and Interpersonal Behavior: On the Self-Fulfilling Nature of Social Stereotypes, 35(9) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 656-66 (1977).

Janet T. Spence et al., Instrumental and Expressive Traits, Trait Stereotypes, and Sexist Attitudes: What Do They Signify?, 24 Psychol. of Women Quarterly 44-62 (2000).

Thomas K. Srull et al., The Role of Category Accessibility in the Interpretation of Information About Persons: Some Determinants and Implications, 37(10) J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 1660-72 (1979).

Nancy L. Stacy, Person Perception as a Function of Marital Status and Age, 137(3) J. of Soc. Psychol. 395-97 (1997).

Robin Stryker, Half Empty, Half Full, or Neither: Law, Inequality, and Social Change in Capitalist Democracies, 3 Annual Rev. L. and Soc. Science 1-29 (2007).

Susan Sturm, Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach, 101 Colum. L. Rev. 458-568 (Apr. 2001).

William B. Swan et al., Self-Verification Processes: How We Sustain Our Self-Conceptions, 17 J. Experimental Soc. Psychol. 351-72 (1981).

Shelley E. Taylor, A Categorization Approach to Stereotyping, in Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior 83-114 (1981) (Hamilton ed., Erlbaum).

Shelley E. Taylor et al., Categorical and Contextual Bases of Person Memory and Stereotyping, 36(7) J. of Personality & Soc. Psychol. 778-93 (1978).

Philip E. Tetlock and Gregory Mitchell, Unconscious Prejudice and Accountability Systems: What Must Organizations Do to Check Implicit Bias?, (Draft) forthcoming in Research in Organizational Behavior (e-copy).

Michelle A. Travis, Perceived Disabilities, Social Cognition, and "Innocent Mistakes," 55(2) Vand. L. Rev. 481-579 (Mar. 2002).

Trezza v. Hartford, Inc., No. 98 CIV. 2205(MBM), 1998 WL 912101, *1 (S.D.N.Y. Dec. 30, 1998).

Virginia Valian, The Cognitive Bases of Gender Bias, 65 Brook. L. Rev. 1037-61 (1999).

Shankar Vedantam, See No Bias, The Washington Post Magazine 12-17, 38-42 (Jan. 23, 2005).

Jane Waldfogel, The Effect of Children on Women's Wages, 62(2) American Sociological Rev. ? 209-17 (1997) (e-copy).

Amy L. Wax, Discrimination as Accident, 74 Ind. L. J. 1129-1231 (1999).

Amy Wax and Phil E. Tetlock, We Are All Racists at Heart, Wall St. J., Dec. 1, 2005, at A16.

Weinstock v. Columbia University, 224 F.3d 33 (2d Cir., 2000).

Christian Wheeler et at., The Effects of Stereotype Activation on Behavior: A Review of Possible Mechanisms, 127(6) Psychological Bulletin 797-826 (2001) (e-copy).

Rebecca Hanner White et al., Whose Motive Matters?: Discrimination in Multi-Actor Employment Decision Making, 61 La. L. Rev. 495-538 (2001).

Julie H. Wayne and Bryanne L. Cordeiro, Who is a Good Organizational Citizen? Social Perception of Male and Female Employees Who Use Family Leave, 49(5/6) Sex Roles 233-46 (2003).

James Werbel, Intent and Choice Regarding Maternal Employment Following Childbirth, 53 J. of Vocational Behavior 372-85 (1998).?

Birgit Weyer, Twenty Years Later: Explaining the Persistence of the Glass Ceiling for Women Leaders, 22(6) Women in Management Rev. 482-96 (2007).?

Joan C. Williams, The Social Psychology of Stereotyping: Using Social Science to Litigate Gender Discrimination Cases and Defang the "Cluelessness" Defense, 7(2) Employee rights and Employment Policy J. 401-58 (2003).

Timothy D. Wilson, Knowing When To Ask: Introspection and the Adaptive Unconscious, 10(9/10) J. of Consciousness Studies 1-10 (2003) (e-copy).

Timothy D. Wilson et al., Affective Forecasting: Knowing What to Want, 14(3) Current Directions in Psychological Science 131-34 (2005) (American Psychological Society) (e-copy).

Janice D. Yoder, Looking Beyond Numbers: The Effects of Gender Status, Job Prestige, and Occupational Gender-Typing on Tokenism Processes, 57(2) Soc. Psychol. Quarterly 150-59 (1994).